This is a highly simplified (approximate, tentative, very rough) geographical interpretation of the HUGO consortium autosomal DNA clustering (paywall but someone hang it HERE - look at the details and not just this poor map, a mere working note, before assuming too many things, please), which produces five major components for East Asians and Melanesians at K=14. The rest are minority components (represented as circles) or South/West Asian ones (not shown here).
Continuous lines show the approximate areas with 50% or more of that component, dotted lines the areas (also approximate) with 20% or more.
Only three of the main components appear as majoritary in some populations: the yellow component, which reaches its highest frequency among Ryukyuans, the light green component which can be described as "Austronesian" but that is also important among Tai-Kadai and Southern Han and the dark green component, which is highest among Boungaville Melanesians and then in Eastern Lesser Sunda (Alor) and could be described as "Melanesian".
The red component is highest among Austroasiatic speakers, as well as Malaysian Malays, including Sea Dayaks (but not Proto-Malays nor Orang Asli), Javanese and Sundanese. The blue component is widespread among continental East Asian peoples (and Hymalayas) but shows no area nor ethnicity where is most concetrated.
Minor components (big dots) correspond to the Hmong-Mien (cyan, which share the blue and light green components too), the Mlabri (light purple, a tiny Austroasiatic hunter-gatherer group), Orang-Asli Negritos (dark red), Proto-Malay (purple-blue), Land Dayaks (grey here but white in the paper) and Filipino Negritos (dark purple).
- East Asians originated in SE Asia
- Indonesian Y-DNA is mostly Paleolithic
- Genetics of the Mlabri, Austroasiatic hunter-gatherers in Thailand
See also the supplementary materials: even more details!