There is an interesting article at Science Daily today that adds important information for one of the discussions that have arisen in Leherensuge recently: did humans caused megafauna extinctions?
The answer is clearly no. Not directly at least. Woolly mammoths are known to have existed in the Iberian peninsula, specially but not only in the North, not just in the Neanderthal (Middle Paleolithic) period but specially in the Upper Paleolithic period, when modern humans were already established and thriving in the region.
These species lived alongside different human cultures. There is evidence in some sites of the Basque country, Navarra and Catalonia that the Neanderthals coexisted with the mammoths and the reindeer at specific times. However, the majority of evidence of these faunae coincides with the periods of the Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures.
The most important detail for me is the word Magdalenian. We know with some certainty that population grew quickly in the Magdalenian period, after the Last Glacial Maximum, yet megafauna was still there and seems rather abundant.
The key element for the vanishing of these large herbivores in Iberia was the end of the Ice Age, when forests became the dominant feature of a warmed up landscape in which these animals, adapted to cold and steppe, could not survive.
There is however an ill-understood gap in the 31-26 Ka period (Aurignacian period, which in Iberia lasts from c. 30 Ka to c. 22 Ka. BP uncalibrated), when the megafauna findings are lacking.
Ref. Diego J. Álvarez-Lao and Nuria García, Chronological distribution of Pleistocene cold-adapted large mammal faunas in the Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary International, 2010. Pay per view.