What follows is based mainly on my previous post MtDNA tree (version 1.1), which in turn is based fundamentally on the information found at PhyloTree (as well as on Ian Logan's mtDNA site for many of the locations - but not for the phylogeny).
I am at all times assuming that each SNP is equivalent to some amount of time in all branches equally. Of course this is a rather daring assumption but better bold than coy. In any case, overall, it should be a nice approximation to real events.
1. Out of Africa and M explosion:
This map represents the time span included in five SNPs: the L2 and L3 explosions in Africa are roughly contemporary but M explosion (producing some 35 lineages) must necessarily have happened some time later (4 SNPs downstream of L3).
As in subsequent maps (and previous posts), macro-haplogroup M is color-coded in red and macro-haplogroup N in blue. The M node is located in South Asia because there is where the highest top-tier diversity is, the specific placement in Bengal is arbitrary: a concession to the also high diversity of this superlineage in East Asia and, to some extent, Sahul. But the M explosion could well have happened in Western or Southern South Asia too, soon after the arrival from (we assume) the South Arabian coasts.
2. The N explosion and diverse M secondary expansions:
This and subsequent "episodes" represent the (theoretically assumed) temporal equivalent of one SNP mutation.
N has been placed in SE Asia because of the 12 lineages produced in this explosion, the largest minority appears to be in Sahul, specifically Australia. Next in line is again the prolific South Asia. In fact SE and East Asia does not appear so much diverse in regard to this clade but is what stands between India and Australia.
Together with the N explosion, several M sublineages appear to have expanded. It is notable that Andaman appears to have been colonized at this early episode and that an arrival to Japan also at this early time should be considered as very possible.
The use of the "coastal route" should appear as obvious at this stage already.
3. First colonization of Sahul and other M and N derived expansions:
The flow along the Indo-Pacific arc continues and for the first time we see clear indications of human presence in Sahul, both Melanesia and Australia. Again a mainly Japanese clade is also seen expanding what seems to ratify the idea that humans were following the East Asian coast in northwards direction. The split of N1'5 is also indication that, even if N maybe exploded in SE Asia, there was a westward flow, flow that must also have carried the precursor of R back into South Asia.
4. The R explosion:
In this map I introduce two new notational features: (1) N-derived macro-haplogroup R is color-coded in green and not plain blue (reserved for N(xR) clades), and (2) some other relevant derived lineages are shown as smaller dots with italic text (in this case N1, ancestor of I, which appears to pioneer the colonization of West Eurasia).
The central event here is of course the R explosion (15 top-tier lineages), that happened without doubt in South Asia and that surprises somewhat because of its vigour. I speculate that the "tribe" that first carried this lineage may have developed some decisive technological, sociological or ecological advantage but it is hard to say for sure.
We also witness the contemporary expansion of several M sublineages, notably D in East Asia. M14, noted with a question mark, is shared between Australia and West Asia and, like others of the same kind has been tentatively located in SE Asia, without much conviction. M27 probably represents the first colonization of the Melanesian islands NE of New Guinea. N1 must represent the first attempt to colonize West Asia, where they must have met the Neanderthals.
5. Main secondary R expansion:
This moment is clearly dominated by R subclades, which appear by the moment limited to the classic Indo-Pacific arc, already transited by their M and N relatives before them.
The R31 node, shared by South Asia and Australia, is tentatively located at SE Asia but could perfectly be South Asian. It is notable that an R sublineage arrives to Sahul (located at New Guinea but in fact shared with Australia). R2'JT is also notable because it is with all likehood located in NW South Asia, where R2 is still rather frequent and not far from West Asia, where JT would soon after expand.
6. East and West:
After the vigorous R expansion of the two previous episodes, this moment seems somewhat more quiet and focused in West and East Asia. This may be a partly false impression caused by the fact that I am not paying much attention to "minor" derived subclades anyhow.
In any case, the will-be important R0 lineage (also known as pre-HV) is already present and dynamic in West Asia. In East Asia, we see the expansive drive of three important clades: R11'B (ancestor of B), M8 (ancestor of M8a and CZ) and G. Maybe I should have placed G in Japan, as I did with its ancestor but, anyhow, G is also found in mainland East Asia: in Eastern Siberia and Central Asia notably. The M8 node may well also have a rather northern location and both may represent a first attempt of colonization of the Eastern Steppes.
7. East and West II, plus the intriguing N2:
Again maybe for lack of low level resolution, we have the most important events centered in East and West Asia at this episode.
In West Asia probably (but surely not far away from South Asia anyhow) the important R-derived lineage U branches out: U1 and U5 probably stay in West Asia, while U6 may have began its journey towards North Africa. The remainder haplogroup U2'3'4'7'8'9 surely coalesced somewhere between Iran and Pakistan. Another notable West Asian event is the branching out of HV (7 sublineages, including the one leading to H, which may be already exploring its way into Europe).
In East Asia we can see the branching of three major lineages: CZ, R9'F and B.
N2 is the ancestor of Australian N2a and West/South Asian W. It is surely the last direct mtDNA link between these two regions and surely represents the last meaningful transiting of the "classical" Indo-Pacific coastal route that has been losing relevance already. Again its location in SE Asia is merely tentative.
8. Some further Asian expansions:
West Asia: split of JT, what means that this lineage was already "on location" and also split of U2'3'4'7'8'9. U2 and U7 are still shared by West and South Asia, U8 (ancestor of K among other lineages), U3 and U4'9 surely headed to or were already in West Asia.
South Asia: the expansion of M2 (eastern coasts) is notable in itself.
East Asia: haplogroup E, most important in SE Asia, expands.
9. European and North African colonization:
Not the only event in this episode but surely the most important one is the simultaneous expansion of haplogroups H (28 sublineages within a starlike structure: a macro-clade in its own right, closer to M in its generated diversity than to N or R) and U6. H is clearly centered in Europe and U6 is in North Africa. They appear to correspond to Aurignacian and to the "aurignacoid" Dabban industries respectively (both derived from a Levantine "proto-Aurignacian", it seems). The expansion of HV0 (of which V is a derived lineage) is surely also related to those events as is that of U8 (not marked in the map but contemporary anyhow).
Other notable events are the expansion of Q in New Guinea, that of N9a and N9b in East Asia (their "sister" Y would follow soon after) and that of R5 and R8 in South Asia.
And I believe it is a good moment to stop this visual narration. There are still some relevant events that happened after episode 9 but I have not drawn the maps.
Some of the most relevant not yet told events are:
Episode 10: F expands in East Asia, A does too (but further north probably), Y (N9-derived) also expands at this moment, what means the colonization of Sakhalin. X expands in West Asia and Egypt (X1-X2 split).
Episode 11: M1 expands in West Asia and East Africa, V expands in Europe, U5 splits into U5a and U5b (in Europe?).
Episode 13: C and Z expand already as distinct lineages in which is probably another episode of the colonization of the far North (Z is shared by such distant peoples as Japanese, Finnish or Hazara for instance).
Episode 14: J expands in West Asia.
Episode 17: expansion of K.
Episode 18: W and T expand in West Asia (W maybe South Asia too). It is possible that T2 migrated to Europe at this time.
Note: I estimated before that these K, T and W expansions might be as old as c. 21 kya but right now it appears to me that they could also be Neolithic. The decisive variable is the date of the M (and N) event (as the H node seems necesarily fixed at c. 41 kya): if the M node is estimated at c. 70 or 74 kya, then K, T and W only expanded in Neolithic or Epipaleolithic times but if, as I did before, it is estimated c. 60 kya, then this late expansion is still well in the Paleolithic and K therefore could well be associated with Magdalenian expansion, for instance.
Of course these "age estimates" are done ignoring demographic factors altogether, what is in itself a huge risk.
That's all, folks.