After digging for some time in the sources at PhyloTree, I have come with a revised mtDNA tree that locates most (but not all) rare lineages.
Please check for any possible errors and/or further information I might have missed.
Click to enlarge
The tree is exactly the same as in the previous version. The only changes are in the location of some rare clades, reducing the number of "unknown" lineages to just 4 M subclades. In two cases (M22'25 and M47'50) I only know the location of one of the two subclades but I'm simplistically assuming that it applies for the whole lineage.
Most of the newly located rare lineages are South Asian, SE Asian (noted as East Asian) or Australian.
The revision still seems to keep M and R gravitating (or at least most highly diverse) at South Asia. N remains mysterious with its highest apparent diversity in Australia (but it is possible that some of the rare lineages are related) and then in South Asia (especially if we include R).
· M forms basically a "T" with South Asia, East Asia and Sahul at the three extremes and a thin projection to the west.
· N(xR) follows the southern Asian coasts from West Asia to Sahul, with a rather reduced projection to the NE (i.e. middle-East Asia).
· R is more West-South-SE Asian axis, with only limited presence in Sahul.
There is a rather strong link between South Asia and West Asia at the R and N lineages, that in some cases extends to Australia (but always seems to exclude East Asia). This does not diffuminate the diferential personality of these regions though.
Further observations: comparison of N with M and R:
The high apparent diversity of N in Australia (take with a grain of salt) may suggest a SE Asian origin for this lineage or at least a high level of flow of this clade through SE Asia in the early stages of Eurasian expansion. I find a strictly Australian N urheimat rather unlikely anyhow.
If my reading is correct, the very first moment of Eurasian expansion was starred by the M explosion and that of many (9) of its derived lineages, mostly in South and SE Asia. N, which was surely lurking along M at that stage may then have been carried to SE Asia along with the other M lineages. It is a possibility.
Anyhow there is no single temporal instance (except its very original node) where you can talk of an "N explosion" clearly: its subclades expand locally, and even often ignoring regional divisions, without any particualr temporal concentration, scattered along time. This is quite different of what we can see in M (early stages especially) and, to a lesser extent maybe, R (second phase), whose nodes are succeeded by large scale expansion of their subclades.
Let me explain myself graphically (">" means the temporal equivalent of one SNP):
· M expands (35 branches) > 9 M subclades (26%) expand > 8 M subclades (23%) expand
· N expands (12 branches) > 2 N subclades (17%) expand > 2 N subclades (17%) expand (one is R)
· R expands (15 branches) > 6 R subclades (40%) expand > 2 R subclades (13%) expand
So not only the M node is much more vigorous than those of N and R but also its branches show more vigor as well. R seems also pretty vigorous at least in the first moment (at that point even much more than M) but, otherwise, N seems to trail behind the rest and scatter its expansion through time.
Only primary derived nodes were considered above.
Check also my previous version and comments.