There is a news item at Science Daily telling of the finding of a tablet with what appears to be a woman ruler, probably the "Mistress of Lioness" who asked in vain for help to her Egyptian overlords when the area was being plundered by tribes of wandering Hebrews and other peoples in the Late Bronze Age (c. 1350 BCE). In her letter she said that her city was in danger because of the threat of bands of barbarians and rebels.
The city, located west of Jerusalem, was anyhow razed and was later known as Beit Shemesh (Hebrew name) or similar variants, meaning House of Shemesh, the Canaanite Sun goddess.
What I find more interesting anyhow is not in the article though. Beit Shemesh is, following Wikipedia, the first city in the country that shows clear signs of Jewish domination, notably bones of only "kosher" animals, unlike in surrounding cities of the same time. This strongly suggests that Beit Shemesh was one of the first Jewish conquest in the country, what in turn seems to idicate that the barbarians and rebels that the Queen wrote about were no other but the Hebrews. Nearby Jerusalem is only believed to have been conquered centuries later, c. 1000 BCE, by the semi-mythical King David.
The period of the Late Bronze Age and even the very beginnings of Iron Age was one of strife and confusion through all West Eurasia, with the obscure Sea Peoples' pillages, the destruction of Troy and Ugarit, the collapse of the Hittite Empire, the expansion of the Urnfield culture peoples, the vanishment of the oldest and long-lived West European civilization, Zambujal, and also the conquest of Canaan by a bunch of sectarian warlike nomads: the Hebrews.
The Jewish domination of Canaan, later known as Palestine, lasted only about one thousand years. After the Roman conquest and genocidal quelling of revolts, the country was fully integrated into the Eastern Roman Empire, and then conquered by the Muslim Caliphate and various successors. Most of the inhabitants became Christians first and then Muslims and are now known as Palestinians (the bulk of modern Jewish ancestry seems actually to be in the diaspora converts from, especially, Asia Minor and Khazaria instead).
Update (Nov. 2012): see this article on the Jewish and Philistine period (a bit messy, specislly wrong usage of English words like ancestors but still of some interest).