I have been recently involved in two discussions on R1b origins and structure. Some of the information I or others dug for them has helped me to make up my mind a little better on the issue.
At the moment the we know that R1b has a main subclade, dominant in Western Europe, which is R1b1b2a1. Most known R1b is R1b1b2a1* and R1b1b2a1a*. Additionally there are other upstream subclades:
- R1b1b1, common in SE Europe, West Asia and Uyghuristan
- R1b1a (exact location within the tree unclear), found in Lebanon and Sardinia
- R1b1c (exact location within the tree unclear), found in Northern Cameroun (Ouldeme and others)
All this certainly suggest that, once upon a time, the ultimate origins of the haplogroup were in West Asia, but also that R1b1b2a1 must be treated as a separate reality within R1b, and that this clade most likely coalesced or at least expanded ("exploded", as its starlike structure strongly suggests) within Western Europe.
In any case, I have revisited Alonso et al, 2005 and, based on my newly acquired knowledge on ht35, reviewed my old reconstruction of the R1b tree accordingly, placing Anatolian ht35 at the root instead of the Western modal haplotype. The result is as follows:
The DYS used by Alonso, and also in the above graph, are: 19-390-391-392-393. [Note: I wrongly wrote originally 90 instead of 390, bringing confusion even to myself. My apologies and thanks to Xavier for pointing out that important error at the comments section. Corrected on Oct 11].
Like in the original version, the four haplotypes in larger type are the most common ones:
- 14-24-11-13-12 (light blue in Alonso's map) is common in Anatolia and found at lower frequencies in SE Europe and also at small ammounts in Central-Western Europe (Germany, Belgium, Friesland).
- 14-24-11-13-13 (red in Alonso's map) is widely distributed, being most common if anywhere among Basques. It is the modal haplotype.
- 14-23-11-13-13 (purple-blue in Alonso's map) has mostly a northernly distribution, with highest frequencies in the Low Countries and Austria.
- 14-24-10-13-13 (black in Alonso's map) has also a northerly distribution, especially around the North Sea, but is also found in SW Europe and even Africa and Anatolia at rather high frequencies.
[Section revised on Oct 11, after taking note of the important DYS sequence error - see above. Significatively new areas are in this color (blue)].
Checking again on the Family Tree DNA hg35 site (only the properly tested samples), I realize that they fit as follows:
- R1b1b2* (L23-, L51-, L11-) most typical haplotype is 14-24-10-14-12, which above appears as derived "Berber/Anatolian" subclade. Also less common is 14-25-11-13-12, not registered here (though maybe listed in the supplementary materials table).
- R1b1b2a* (L23+, L51-, L11-) most common haplotype is 14-24-11-13-12, which is the "modal" Anatolian subclade, the apparent root in the graph above. Also 15-24-11-13-12 (Middle European distribution that could mathc Neolithic spread, for some odd reason not shown in the post's graph) and others less common.
- R1b1b2a1* (L23+, L51+, L11-) common haplotypes are 14-24-11-13-13 ("R1b modal"), 14-23-11-13-13 ("Belgium-Austria") and 14-25-11-13-13 ("Welsh"). Importantly 14-23-11-13-13 is one of the major haplotypes in Europe and seems to suggest an early divergence in Central Europe at this para-haplogroup stage.
- R1b1b2a1a (L23+,L51+, L11+) most common haplotype is again "modal" 14-24-11-13-13. Some of the rest have 15-24-11-13-13, a small Middle European subclade. 14-24-11-14-13 is also seen in several cases at FTDNA and it's a minor Atlantic clade of Britain and Iberia. The "Scottish" (plus North Sea/Basques) major haplotype 14-24-10-13-13 also falls mostly in this haplogroup.